Rabu, 27 Agustus 2008


The Maserati brothers, Alfieri Maserati, Bindo Maserati, Carlo Maserati, Ettore Maserati, Ernesto Maserati and Mario Maserati, were all involved with automobiles from the beginning of the 20th century. Alfieri, Bindo and Ernesto built 2-litre Grand Prix cars for Diatto. In 1926, Diatto suspended the production of race cars, leading to the creation of the first Maserati and the founding of the Maserati marque. One of the first Maseratis, driven by Alfieri, won the 1926 Targa Florio. Maserati began making race cars with 4, 6, 8 and 16 cylinders (actually two straight eights mounted parallel to one another). Mario, an artist, is believed to have devised the company's trident emblem, based on one the Fontana del Nettuno, Bologna. Alfieri Maserati died in 1932 but three other brothers, Bindo, Ernesto and Ettore, kept the firm going, building cars that won races.
Orsi ownershipIn 1937, the remaining Maserati brothers sold their shares in the company to the Adolfo Orsi family, who in 1940 relocated the company headquarters to their hometown of Modena,[2] where it remains to this day. The brothers continued in engineering roles with the company, however. Racing successes continued, even against the giants of German racing, Auto Union and Mercedes. In 1939, a Maserati 8CTF won the Indianapolis 500, a feat repeated the following year.The war then intervened, Maserati abandoning cars to produce components for the Italian war effort. During this time, Maserati worked in fierce competition to construct a V16 towncar for Benito Mussolini before Ferry Porsche of Volkswagen built one for Adolf Hitler. They failed in this endeavour and the plans were scrapped. Once peace was restored, Maserati returned to making cars, the Maserati A6 series, doing well in the post-war racing scene.Key people will join the Maserati team, Alberto Massimino, an old Fiat engineer, with both Alfa Romeo and Ferrari experiences. He will be in charge of overseeing the design of all racing models for the next ten years. With him will join "ingeniore" Giulio Alfieri (1924–2002),Vittorio Bellentani and Gioacchino Colombo (1903–1987), the designer of the V12 Ferrari. The focus was to come with the best engines and the best chassis to succeed in car racing. All these new projects will receive the last contribution of the Maserati brothers, who after the 10-year contract with Orsi, went on to form the O.S.C.A. car builder. This team worked on several projects (Maserati 4CLT, Maserati A6 series, Maserati 8CLT), including one that will be pivotal for the future success of the company: the Maserati A6GCMThe famous Argentinian driver Juan-Manuel Fangio raced for Maserati for a number of years in the 1950s, producing a number of stunning victories including winning the world championship in 1957 in the Maserati 250F alongside with Toulo de Graffenried, Louis Chiron, Prince Bira, Enrico Platé and with a few others. Other racing projects in the 50s were the Maserati 200S, Maserati 300S (with several famous pilots, among these, Benoit Musy), Maserati 350S, Maserati 450S, followed in 1961 by the famous Maserati Birdcage.Maserati had retired from factory racing participation due to the Guidizzolo accident (1957), though it built racing cars to be raced by others after that date. After 1957, Maserati became more and more focussed on road cars, and chief engineer Giulio Alfieri built the 6-cylinder Maserati 3500 2+2 coupe featuring an aluminum body over Carrozzeria Touring's superleggera structure, a design also used for the small-volume V8-powered Maserati 5000. Next came the Maserati Sebring bodied by Vignale and launched in 1962, the Maserati Mistral Coupé (1963) and the Spider (1964), both designed by Pietro Frua, and their first four-door, the Maserati Quattroporte (1963), also designed by Pietro Frua. The two-seater Maserati Ghibli coupe was launched in 1967, followed by a convertible in 1969.Citroën ownershipA 1957 Maserati 200SI at the Scarsdale ConcoursMaserati "Birdcage"1959 Maserati 5000 GT CoupeMaserati SebringMaserati Quattroporte grille In 1968, came a great change—purchase by Citroën. Adolfo Orsi remained the nominal president, but Maserati changed a great deal. New models were launched, and built in much greater numbers than before. Citroën borrowed Maserati expertise and engines for the Citroën SM and other vehicles, and Maseratis also incorporated Citroën technology, particularly in hydraulics.New models included the Maserati Bora, the first mass-produced mid-engined Maserati, in 1971, and the Maserati Merak and Maserati Khamsin soon afterwards; the Maserati Quattroporte II, which shared some parts with Citroën SM, never came into production. The 1973 oil crisis, however, put the brakes on this ambitious expansion—suddenly, the demand for fuel-thirsty sports cars shrank. Citroën went bankrupt in 1974 and on May 23, 1975, the new controlling group PSA Peugeot Citroën declared that Maserati also was in liquidation.[3] Propped up by Italian government funds (GEPI), the company stayed alive, if barely.The Maserati engine and its associated gearbox have been used in other vehicles such as Special Rally prepared Citroën DS, as used by Bob Neyret in Bandama Rally or in the Ligier JS 2.De Tomaso1975 saw the company back on its feet with Alessandro de Tomaso,[3] an Argentinian former racing driver, the new managing director. De Tomaso had arranged for the Benelli motorcycle company, which he controlled, to buy Maserati from Citroën and install him as its head. New models were introduced in 1976, including the Maserati Kyalami and the Maserati Quattroporte III.The 1980s saw the company largely abandoning the mid-engined sports car in favour of squarish, front-engined, rear-drive coupes, cheaper than before but with aggressive performance, like the Maserati Biturbo.The Maserati Biturbo has been declined in a large number of models, all sharing key components among which a short two door coupe Maserati Karif and a cabriolet, the Spyder, designed by Zagato. The last version of the Maserati Biturbo was called Maserati Racing. It has been a transitional model in which several features to be found on the Ghibli II and the Shamal were tested. Two new coupes, the Maserati Shamal and Maserati Ghibli II, were released in 1990 and 1992, respectively.The company also worked loosely with Chrysler, now headed by de Tomaso's friend Lee Iacocca. Chrysler purchased part of Maserati and the two jointly produced a car, the Chrysler TC by Maserati that took much too long to introduce on the US market.There was also two further very challenging projects:the Chubasco a V8 mid-engine supercar, unfortunately due to lack of funding remained a dream.the Maserati Barchetta a small open top mid engine sports car, unfortunately very few cars were produced.

Fiat ownership1993 saw the company acquired by Fiat.[3] Substantial investments were made in Maserati, and it has since undergone something of a renaissance.In 1999, a new chapter began in Maserati's history when the company launched the 3200 GT, the only "Fiat Maserati". This two-door coupé is powered by a 3.2 L twin-turbocharged V8 which produces 370 hp (276 kW); the car does 0–60 mph in less than 5 seconds. Its top speed is 285 km/h (177 mph). With the addition of a Ferrari-designed and -built V-8 and automated manual transmission for the 2002 model year, this car continues to be produced today as the Coupé (hardtop) and Spyder (convertible model).Ferrari In 1997, Fiat sold a 50% share in the company to Maserati's long-time arch-rival Ferrari (though this was, and is, itself controlled by Fiat).[2] In 1999 Ferrari took full control, making Maserati its luxury division. A new factory was built, replacing the existing 1940s-vintage facility. Ferrari is credited for bringing Maserati back into business, after many lackluster years of Maserati teetering on the brink of bankruptcy.More recently, Maserati discussed an agreement with Volkswagen for the German company to share its Audi division's Quattro all-wheel-drive technology (originally meant for the still-born Maserati Kubang sport utility vehicle concept) for Maserati's current Quattroporte platform. This idea has since been abandoned because Volkswagen owns two of Ferrari's direct rivals, Lamborghini and Bugatti.Meanwhile two new models have been shown to the public: the MC12 road supersports and successful GT racer with an Enzo Ferrari–derived chassis and engine. And the Quattroporte, a high luxury saloon with the 4.2l V8 engine. Maserati is nowadays back in the business, very successfully selling on a global basis. In 2001 Ferrari decided to throw away all the old instruments and installed high-tech devices in the Modena factory, making it one of the most advanced in the world.Today In 2005, as a consequence of the termination of the agreement between Fiat and General Motors under which GM may have been obliged to buy Fiat's car division, Maserati was separated from Ferrari and brought back under Fiat's full control. Fiat plans to create a sports and luxury division from Maserati and another of its marques, Alfa Romeo. GM had to pay Fiat around two billion dollars. Maserati sold 2,006 cars in the United States in 2005, 2,108 in 2006, and 2,540 in 2007. In the second quarter of 2007 Maserati made profit for the first time in the 17 years under the Fiat Group ownership.[4]
source from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maserati


Early historyOtto-FlugzeugwerkeA series of double-hulled aircraft for Russia at the Otto factoriesGustav Otto was the son of the wealthy Nikolaus August Otto, the inventor of the four-stroke internal combustion engine. Gustav was an aviator and one of the first flight pioneers in Bavaria. Along with a few others, Gustav flew machines made of wood, wire, canvas and powered by an engine. Through their passion for these flying machines, they helped transform aviation from a do-it-yourself hobby to a genuine industry vital to the military, especially after the breakout of World War I.a Gustav Flugmachinfabrik biplane in 1910Gustav, in 1910, received the German aviation license no. 34, and, in the same year, set up a training school and a factory that came to be called Otto-Flugzeugwerke in 1913. The factory was located on Lerchenauer Strasse, east of the Oberwiesenfeld troop maneuver area in the Milbertshofen district of Munich (this area later became Munich's first airport). He concentrated on building Farman inspired pushers (he had got his own license on an Aviatik-Farman), and soon became the main supplier for the Bayerische Fliegertruppen (Royal Bavarian Flying Corps). Both the Otto-Werke and his AGO Werke companies, which from 1914 developed different aircraft, were not successful in getting any orders from the Prussian military due to unexplained quality issues. The military urged Otto to revise his production line, but the issues were never resolved. Suffering financially, the Otto company was purchased by a consortium, which included MAN AG as well as some banks, in February 1916. One month later, on this company’s premises the investors established a new business, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke AG. AGO closed down in 1918, the facilities being taken over by AEG.[edit] Rapp MotorenwerkeIn 1913 Karl Rapp established Rapp Motorenwerke in a few wooden buildings of a former bicycle factory near the Oberwiesenfeld. This new company specialized in airplane engines.After the outbreak of World War I, Rapp started to supply aeroengines to the Austrian army. However, the engines suffered severe vibration problems, causing the military to decline purchasing the poorly performing engines. Rapp would quickly have gone out of business if his main customer, Austrian military forces, had not had Austro-Daimler V12 aircraft engines built here during war under a license. Austro-Daimler at the time was unable to meet its own demands to build V12 Aero engines. The officer supervising aero-engine building at Austro-Daimler on behalf of the Austrian navy was Franz Josef Popp. When it was decided to produce Austro-Daimler engines at Rapp Motorenwerke, it was Popp who was delegated to Munich from Vienna to supervise engine quality.However, Popp did not restrict himself to the role of observer, but became actively involved in the overall management of the company. Popp was also the person who convinced Karl Rapp to accept the application of Max Friz, a young aircraft engine designer and engineer at Daimler. At first Rapp was going to turn down Friz’s request; however, Popp successfully intervened on Friz’s behalf, because he recognized that Rapp Motorenwerke lacked an able designer. In the space of a few weeks he designed a new aero-engine, which, with an innovative carburettor and a variety of other technical details, was superior to any other German aero-engine. Later, this engine would gain world renown under the designation “BMW IIIa”.The recognition that Max Friz gained with his engine made it clear to all the senior managers that up to now Karl Rapp and his inadequate engine designs had held the company back from success. In Friz they now had an excellent chief designer on hand and were no longer dependent on Rapp. On 25 July 1917 the partners in the company therefore terminated Karl Rapp’s contract. The end of this collaboration had been coming for a long time. When Rapp’s departure was finally a certainty, another important decision had to be made. If the man who had lent his name to the company was now leaving it, a new name was naturally required. So, on 21 July 1917, Rapp Motorenwerke GmbH was renamed Bayerische Motorenwerke GmbH.

The R32-a legend is made Main article: History of BMW motorcyclesR32: the first BMW motorcycleAt the German Motor Show in Berlin (September 28 – October 7, 1923) BMW exhibited the R32 to the public for the first time. The first motorcycle from BMW convinced the experts immediately, and was an instantly popular product with consumers. A comment in the magazine DER MOTORWAGEN read: "And finally, the culmination of the exhibition, the new BMW motorcycle (494 cc) with the cylinders arranged transversely. Despite its youth it is a remarkably fast and successful motorcycle."In 1924 BMW built its first model motorcycle, the R32. This had a 500 cc air-cooled horizontally-opposed engine, a feature that would resonate among their various models for decades to come, albeit with displacement increases and newer technology. The major innovation was the use of a driveshaft instead of a chain to drive the rear wheel. To this day the driveshaft and boxer engine are still used on BMW motorcycles.Automobiles BMW's first automobile, the BMW DixiBMW’s automobile history had begun much earlier than 1924, if only in the form of proposals and prototypes. Correspondence dating back to 1918 shows the first use of the term “automobile” in BMW history. But no details, let alone images have come down to us regarding this fourwheeled primogenitor. Subsequently, BMW manufactured various built-in motors with four and two cylinders that powered a wide variety of agricultural vehicles in the early 1920s. The spectrum of machinery driven across the land by BMW units ranged from single-track cars to huge farm tractors. Around 1925 two specially hired BMW designers, Max Friz and Gotthilf Dürrwächter, both former employees of Daimler-Benz in Stuttgart, were commissioned by BMW’s Managing Director Franz Josef Popp to design a BMW production car. From this first, demonstrably operational BMW car – though as yet lacking any bodywork, BMW laid the groundwork for one of the world's most respected manufacturer of automobiles.Success for BMW in this industry came from an already proven source-the Seven. In 1927 the tiny Dixi, an Austin Seven produced under license, began production in Eisenach. BMW bought the Dixi Company the following year, and this became the company's first car, the BMW 3/15. By 1933 BMW was producing cars that could be called truly theirs, offering steadily more advanced I6 sports and saloons (sedans). The pre-war cars culminated in the 327 coupé and convertible, the 328 roadster, fast 2.0 L cars, both very advanced for their time, as well as the upscale 335 luxury sedan.World War IIThe German invasion of Poland and the associated commencement of hostilities meant that the government ordered production in parts of the German economy to be converted to the manufacture of armaments. Josef Popp was skeptical against shifting the focus of production to aeroengine production. Popp's thinking that this would provide a one sided orientation for the group by focusing its activities on armament in preparation for war. Although this area was financially lucrative, it would mean that the group was heavily dependent on decisions made by the National Socialist regime. In June 1940, he wrote to the Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Emil Georg von Stauss, explaining that the situation could “threaten the very existence of BMW AG if there were any setback to aeroengine production”.[7] The strategically important position of BMW for air armament would lead to a rise in the volume of specifications and more interference from political and military agencies, which would in turn increasingly restrict the scope for entrepreneurial maneuvers. This would weaken the position of the group’s management. It would also erode the position of Franz Josef Popp, who up until then had directed the company largely autonomously and autocratically.BMW primarily had to concentrate on the development and production of air-cooled aeroengines. These activities were bundled within BMW Flugmotorenbau GmbH. Motorcycle production located at BMW AG in Munich had to abandon civilian production by 1940. The company was eventually only producing the R12 and from 1941 the R75, which was supplied to the Wehrmacht. At the beginning of 1942, a government order demanded that all motorcycle production should be transferred to Eisenach, so that the main plant in Munich could be used for engine construction. A short time later in 1942, BMW was forced to abandon motorcycle production altogether.A wide range of aeroengines were produced for the Luftwaffe, including one of the most powerful available- the BMW 801. Over 30,000 different aeroengines were manufactured up to 1945. BMW also researched jet engines, producing the BMW 003, and rocket-based weapons.BMW AG had already had to give up its automobile manufacturing operations with effect from 1940, because the company was not producing any cars for the army. As a result, only repairs were carried out in this area, some engines were manufactured and a development department was maintained.The executive body statutes were introduced on October 1, 1940, under which all subsidiaries had to transfer all their profits and losses in full to their relevant parent company and ultimately to BMW AG. Expansion of business in the aeroengine sector and the legal framework conditions required several injections of capital. The majority of these funds were transferred immediately to Flugmotorenbau GmbH. The total capital of BMW AG increased in stages to RM 100 million by 1944. From January 1, 1944, further restructuring was carried out within the Group: 1) All sales were now effected through BMW AG, the GmbHs only acted as property companies. 2) Production was organized into 4 works groups operating independently of the legal structure of the Group (Munich, Allach, Eisenach and Berlin).Foreigners were also employed from mid-1941, in order to make up for the lack of workers and to maintain production. Foreigners were used at all sites and by 1944, they generally made up between 40% and 50% of the workforce at BMW, which numbered over 50,000 at that time. The legal status of foreign workers ranged from prisoners of war to forced labor.BMW used forced slave labor primarily from concentration camps between 1941 and 1945.At the end of the war, the plants of BMW AG were confiscated by Allied troops. The production of armaments at the company was of course brought to an end.Second crisis for BMW AG – WWII aftermath 1954 BMW 502 V8 SuperThe acclaimed 1956 BMW 507BMW AG was heavily bombed towards the end of the war, reducing most of the companies production facilities to rubble. In fact, by the end of the war, the Munich plant was completely destroyed.[8] Of its sites, those in eastern Germany (Eisenach-Dürrerhof, Wandlitz-Basdorf and Zühlsdorf) were seized by the Soviets. After the war the Munich factory took some time to restart production in any volume. BMW was banned from manufacturing for three years by the Allies and did not produce a motorcycle, the R24, until 1948, and a car model until 1952. During the three year ban BMW used scraps and what resources they had available to manufacture bicycles and kitchen supplies. [9]In the east, the company's factory at Eisenach was taken over by the Soviet Awtowelo group which formed finally the Eisenacher Motor-Werke. That company offered "BMWs" for sale until 1951, when the Bavarian company prevented use of the trademarks: the name, the logo and the "double-kidney" radiator grille.The cars and motorcycles were then branded EMW (Eisenacher Motoren-Werke), production continuing until 1955.BMW Isetta- sales of this car saved the company in post WWII Germany In the west, the BAC, Bristol Aeroplane Company, inspected the factory, and returned to Britain with plans for the 326, 327 and 328 models. These plans, which became official war reparations, along with BMW engineer Fritz Fiedler allowed the newly formed Bristol Cars to produce a new, high-quality sports saloon (sedan), the 400 by 1947, a car so similar to the BMW 327 that it even kept the famous BMW grille.In 1948 BMW produced its first postwar motorcycle and in 1952 it produced its first passenger car since the war. However, its car models were not commercially successful; models such as the acclaimed BMW 507 and 503 were too expensive to build profitably and were low volume.By the late 1950s, it was also making bubble-cars such as the Isetta.

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